- Alphabetic Knowledge: knowledge of names and sounds associated with printed letters
- Phonological Awareness: detecting, manipulating, or analyzing parts of words
- Rapid Automatic Naming of Letters/Digits: naming a sequence of random letters or numbers
- Rapid Automatic Naming of Objects/Colors: naming a sequence of random sets of pictures or objects
- Writing or Writing Name: writing letters in isolation or one's own name
- Phonological Memory: remembering spoken information for a short period of time
The article ends with another warning: "What we always have to keep in mind is that we are dealing with very young children, so the instruction needs to be playful and engaging." I have always thought instruction for any age should be engaging and if it can be presented as "playful" instead of "work" that is also a great advantage.